I came across this for the second time.
The reason for day and night is the movement the Sun is doing along with the aether's daily motion, God moving it. The reason for the seasons (not to be counfounded with Reason of the Season, referring to Christ Child in Christmastide, but including reason why Christmas is winter in France and Summer in South Africa) is the other movement which the Sun is doing with an angel moving it through the zodiac. This movement takes a year to get full circle around the zodiac, so the four seasons (or however many seasons you divide the year into) come in a year, not in 24 hours.
The daily movement is a circle perpendicular to polar axis. The yearly one is through the zodiac, a circle or ellipse which is in a tilted plane, not coinciding with that or rather those parallel ones of the daily circles. March and September sun is straight over equator. June straight over Northern Tropic, December straight over Southern Tropic. Pisces and Virgo are zodiac signs where it crosses equator, Capricorn is a zodiac sign as far south of equator as zodiac gets, Cancer as far north of the equator as zodiac gets.
While all of the signs are daily circling earth, all of them are not having the sun in them at the same time. When Sun circles with Cancer, it gets warmer on the North, when sun circles with Capricorn it gets warmer in the South. There is also a different distance of the Sun, which is at its perigee in the Cancer (when it is seen against background of Cancer), meaning that then it is closest to Earth and at its apogee in the Capricorn, meaning that then it is furthest away from Earth.
For Northern hemisphere, perigee and Cancer collaborate to make summer hotter and apogee and Capricorn to make winter colder. For Southern hemisphere, perigee tends to make winters somewhat warmer and apogee tends to make summers somewhat cooler.
Thus, there is a complete explanation why the tour of the seasons does not coincide with the day and night period, but takes a much longer one.
So, where does this canard come from?
I guess, it is for one thing a case of ignoring the complex movements which Geocentrism posits and is able to posit while admitting God and angels as movers. But more importantly, it is a kind of thought being captive in terminology.
To a Heliocentric, the orbit of Mars around the Sun is a Martian year, the orbit of Venus around the Sun a Venerean year and the orbit of Earth around the Sun, or supposed such, a Tellurian year. Thus, to this terminology every body has its year defined by its orbit around some other body. Hence, if Sun is going around Earth daily, a Solar year would be one day.
OK, but even that is lazy thinking. A "Solar" year in this sense would not be what we normally call a "Solar" year, since that is what Heliocentric astronomers call a Tellurian Year. So, perhaps the Sun would experience "a year" or "different seasons" each day by circling about us each day, but the problem is that it is not receiving light from us, so us being centre does not make us cause any seasons on the Sun.
I hope this suffices to answer this simple canard.
Meanwhile, it is touring the internet (and probably a lot of other media, perhaps classrooms through teachers too) and giving the polemic a slant of "geocentrics are totally incompetent people who get nothing and are not open to rational explanation", which is a somewhat uncharitable as well as unhistorical slant on it.
Obviously astronomers were geocentrics before heliocentrism was the fashion, and seasons were explained, namely in the manner of Sun's movement being composite, of a daily and a yearly movement. And obviously, though this takes angels and God, it does not take any leaps of logic or self contradictory statements, and gives nothing like the result stated as "We'd have four seasons in twentyfour hours".